Cracks In The Cement Grout Layer
In the past, attempts were made to inject cracks in grouting with low viscosity epoxy, but the results were generally very disappointing due to the poor quality of the cementitious grout. Replacing the grout layer with epoxy grout is the best option.
Cracks In The Foundation
Vertical cracks running in corners and along the sump are easily injected with low viscosity epoxy (Figure 11). Low pressure pumping at a slow rate will push the majority of oil and water out. Special epoxies absorb a considerable amount of oil and water as well. Stone pockets will be filled.
Horizontal cracks or cold joints reduce the possibility of transmitting vibrations into the mat. Due to the ongoing vibrations, a clearance at this plane is created in the foundation. This creates two ‘separated’ parts in the foundation. Injection of these cracks with an epoxy will not be satisfactory since these horizontal disconnections require additional compressive strength in order to bring the separated parts together again. Therefore, long anchors (pull anchors, Figure 6) are to be installed across the cold joint, making the foundation monolithic again.
This paper should provide some guidance in a situation where problems with the foundation or anchoring of a reciprocating compressor system are suspected. For ease of understanding, more extensive data and details are avoided, but these can be found in the applicable guidelines.
Several international standards, guidelines and best practices for the design of foundations, anchors and grouting of reciprocating compressor systems have been developed. Unfortunately, most of this material is either not available for everybody, is too general or not directly applicable.
For that reason, an EFRC project was started entitled: “Summary of international guidelines, standards and best practices of foundations, anchors and grouting of reciprocating compressor systems.” This document is intended for use by rotating equipment and civil engineers of end users, packagers, EPC contractors, grouting companies and reciprocating compressor OEMs. The document can be downloaded from the EFRC website (www.recip.org) at the end of 2016, by its members only .
About the authors: Theo de Kok (BBA) is the unit manager, Industrial Services at EMHA. Contact him at: firstname.lastname@example.org Tom Hoekstra is a senior technical manager, Industrial Services at EMHA. Contact him at: email@example.com.
1. EFRC project: “Summary of international guidelines, standards and best practices of foundations, anchors and grouting of reciprocating compressor systems” (www.recip.org)
2. EFRC paper: “Best Practices in Compressor Mounting” James A. Kuly, October 2010, Florence, Italy ITW/ Polymer Technologies, USA, at the occasion of the 7th EFRC Conference,
3. “Recommended Practice for Machinery Installation and Installation Design” API Recommended Practice 686 second edition, December 2009 Ref 5.4.2
4. GMRC Technical Report: “Foundation Guidelines” A. J. Smalley P. J. Pantermuehl, January 1997, Mechanical and Fluids Engineering Division South-west Research Institute Report No. TR-97-2
5. GMRC Guideline For High-Speed Reciprocating Compressor Packages For Natural Gas Transmis-sion & Storage Applications, October 7, 2013, Gas Machinery Research Council ACI Services Inc.
6. “Experimental and numerical investigation of dynamic rocking foundation behavior” Phipps, Jacob Nathan 2013. Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 13615
7. EFRC project: “Guidelines for Vibrations in Reciprocating Compressor systems” European Forum Reciprocating Compressors (EFRC), November 2009
8. “Sulfate attack in concrete and mortar” An abstract from the book ‘Understanding Cement’ ISBN-13: 978-0-9571045-2-5
9. “Polymers in Concrete”, 1994, Satish Chandra, Yoshihiko Ohama ISBN-13: 978-0849348150
10. “Effect of Crude Oil Spill on Compressive Strength of Concrete Materials” Ejeh, S.P. and Uche. Journal of Applied Sciences Research: 1756-1761.2009
11. “Mechanical vibration – Evaluation of machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts” Part 8: Reciprocating compressor systems, BS ISO 10816-8:2014
12. EFRC paper “Reciprocating Compressor Foundations They do not last forever” R. van Lienen, H. Lankenau, 5th EFRC Conference March 2007, Prague. NEAC compressor service GmbH
13. “Mechanical vibration – Evaluation of machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts” Part 8: Reciprocating compressor systems ISO 10816-8:2014